Periodic Table of Elements - Elements Database

Periodic Table

Our periodic table of chemical elements presents complete information on the chemical elements including the chemical element symbol, atomic number, atomic weight and description. The links below lead to the detailed description of most well known chemical elements. Our periodic table information can be useful for chemistry and physics students, as well as science researchers.You can test your Periodic Table knowledge with our Periodic Table Quiz.

Dynamic Periodic Table

H 1 Hydrogen 1.0079  
  He 2 Helium 4.0026
Li 3 Lithium 6.939 Be 4 Beryllium 9.0122 B 5 Boron 10.811 C 6 Carbon 12.01115 N 7 Nitrogen 14.0067 O 8 Oxygen 15.9994 F 9 Fluorine 18.9984 Ne 10 Neon 20.183
Na 11 Sodium 22.9898 Mg 12 Magnesium 24.312 Al 13 Aluminium 26.9815 Si 14 Silicon 28.086 P 15 Phosphorus 30.9738 S 16 Sulfur 32.064 Cl 17 Chlorine 35.453 Ar 18 Argon 39.948
K 19 Potassium 39.0983 Ca 20 Calcium 40.08 Sc 21 Scandium 44.956 Ti 22 Titanium 47.90 V 23 Vanadium 50.9415 Cr 24 Chromium 51.996 Mn 25 Manganese 54.938 Fe 26 Iron 55.847 Co 27 Cobalt 58.933 Ni 28 Nickel 58.693 Cu 29 Copper 63.54 Zn 30 Zinc 65.38 Ga 31 Gallium 69.72 Ge 32 Germanium 72.63 As 33 Arsenic 74.922 Se 34 Selenium 78.96 Br 35 Bromine 79.909 Kr 36 Krypton 83.80
Rb 37 Rubidium 85.47 Sr 38 Strontium 87.62 Y 39 Yttrium 88.905 Zr 40 Zirconium 91.22 Nb 41 Niobium 92.906 Mo 42 Molybdenum 95.94 Tc 43 Technetium (98) Ru 44 Ruthenium 101.07 Rh 45 Rhodium 102.905 Pd 46 Palladium 106.4 Ag 47 Silver 107.870 Cd 48 Cadmium 112.41 In 49 Indium 114.82 Sn 50 Tin 118.710 Sb 51 Antimony 121.760 Te 52 Tellurium 127.60(3) I 53 Iodine 126.904 Xe 54 Xenon 131.30
Cs 55 Caesium 132.90545 Ba 56 Barium 137.34 57-71 Hf 72 Hafnium 178.49 Ta 73 Tantalum 180.948 W 74 Tungsten 183.85 Re 75 Rhenium 186.20 Os 76 Osmium 190.23 Ir 77 Iridium 192.217 Pt 78 Platinum 195.084 Au 79 Gold 196.96655 Hg 80 Mercury 200.59 Ti 81 Thallium 204.3833 Pb 82 Lead 207.2 Bi 83 Bismuth 208.980 Po 84 Polonium (209) At 85 Astatine (210) Rn 86 Radon (222)
Fr 87 Francium (223) Ra 88 Radium (226) 89-103 Rf 104 Rutherfordium (267) Db 105 Dubnium (268) Sg 106 Seaborgium (271) Bh 107 Bohrium (270) Hs 108 Hassium (277) Mt 109 Meitnerium (276) Ds 110 Darmstadtium (281.16) Rg 111 Roentgenium (280.16) Cn 112 Copernicium (285.17) Uut 113 Ununtrium (284) Fl 114 Flerovium (289.19) Uup 115 Ununpentium (289) Lv 116 Livermorium (293) Uus 117 Ununseptium (294) Uuo 118 Ununoctium (294)
La 57 Lanthanum 138.9055 Ce 58 Cerium 140.12 Pr 59 Praseodymium 140.907 Nd 60 Neodymium 144.24 Pm 61 Promethium 144.91 Sm 62 Samarium 150.35 Eu 63 Europium 151.25 Gd 64 Gadolinium 157.25 Tb 65 Terbium 158.924 Dy 66 Dysprosium 162.50 Ho 67 Holmium 164.93 Er 68 Erbium 167.26 Tm 69 Thulium 168.934 Yb 70 Ytterbium 173.04 Lu 71 Lutetium 194.967
Ac 89 Actinium (227) Th 90 Thorium 232.038 Pa 91 Protactinium 231.05 U 92 Uranium 238.03 Np 93 Neptunium (237.05) Pu 94 Plutonium (244) Am 95 Americium (243) Cm 96 Curium (247) Bk 97 Berkelium (247) Cf 98 Californium (251) Es 99 Einsteinium (252) Fm 100 Fermium (257) Md 101 Mendelevium (258) No 102 Nobelium (259) Lr 103 Lawrencium (262)

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Periodic Table of Elements
Periodic Table of Elements

Origins of the Periodic Table of Elements

The Periodic Table displays all known chemical elements which are grouped by chemical properties and atomic structure.

Copper, silver, gold, mercury, tin, lead, and other elements have been known since ancient times and were used to make jewelry, coins, and tools. Phosphorus became the first element to be discovered by Hennig Brand in 1649. It is known as the first scientific discovery of a chemical element.

Early Systematization Attempts

A total of 63 elements have been discovered by 1869. However, the first attempts at systematization occurred in 1829 and 1862. Johan Dobereiner grouped chemical elements into triads, and De Chancourtois formulated a chart with closely related elements.

Mendeleev's Periodic Table

It was only in 1869 when Dmitri Mendeleev, an inventor and chemist of Russian origin, discovered the Periodic Law and organized all chemical elements in columns and rows. The elements were organized based on their physical and chemical properties.

The Extended Periodic Table

It is still to be discovered how far the Periodic Table of Elements extends. According to the American scientist Glenn Seaborg, element 130 is the highest possible. Attempts were made to synthesize several new elements, including unbiseptium, unbihexium, unbiquadium, and unbibium.

Periodic Table Grouping

The Periodic Table includes 18 groups, and each group contains elements with similar chemical and physical properties of the outermost electron shells. The so called typical elements are found in the first two rows.


Group 1 of the Periodic Table groups together the alkali metals while group 2 contains all alkaline earth metals. The noble gases and halogens are in groups 18 and 17, respectively. The Periodic Table groups elements into the cobalt, chromium, vanadium, scandium, copper, cobalt, and other groups.


There are 7 periods of elements that group elements with similar properties. Period 1 contains two elements, helium and hydrogen while period 7 contains radioactive elements. The rare earth elements are found in period 6. Many period 6 elements are toxic, heavy, and radioactive.


Blocks combine adjacent groups and are also called element families. There are 4 blocks in the Periodic Table - f, d, p, and s. The f block includes inner transition elements and the d block is made of transition elements. The p block includes post-transition metals, semimetals, and nonmetals, with the exception of helium and hydrogen. The s block contains alkaline earths and alkali metals.

Major Categories

The major categories are metalloids, nonmetals, and metals, and most elements in the Periodic Table are metals. Metals are malleable, shiny, and ductile while nonmetals lack metallic properties and are volatile. Metalloids share properties with both nonmetals and metals.

Periodic Table Curious Facts

The Most Expensive Element

Lutetium is a metal and the most expensive chemical element available. The price of 1 gram is $100. Francium, however, is the most expensive element that can be produced. A small amount will cost a few billion.

The Lightest and Heaviest Element

Hydrogen is the lightest element, and it is also the most abundant one. Hydrogen has important commercial applications, for example, hydrogen fuel cells and the manufacture of chemical products. Uranium is the heaviest element that occurs freely in nature. Ununoctium is heavier and the heaviest known chemical element, but it is manmade.

The Rarest Element

The rarest element is astatine, and scientists estimate that the total amount found is less than 1 gram. CERN researchers suggest that its isotopes can be used in cancer treatment therapies.

Precious Metals

The group of precious metals includes elements such as palladium, ruthenium, platinum, iridium, and gold. Other precious metals include osmium, ruthenium, silver, and rhodium. They are used for coinage, jewelry, and alloys and have different commercial applications.

Artificially Made Elements

Some elements are not found in nature but are synthesized in laboratory settings. They are also called synthetic elements and have radioactive properties. Fermium and einsteinium are the first artificially made elements which were discovered in 1952. Today, there are 20 known synthetic or artificially made elements, among which copernicium, roentgenium, dubnium, ununseptium, lawrencium, and others.

The Most Abundant Element in the Universe

About 75 percent of the mass of the universe consists of hydrogen, making it the most abundant element. It is a colorless and odorless gas that makes up nuclear matter. The second most abundant is helium, which accounts for about 25 percent of the mass. Other elements include oxygen, iron, neon, magnesium, carbon, and nitrogen.

How Many Radioactive Elements?

There are 37 radioactive elements in the Periodic Table. Many radioactive isotopes have been isolated as well. The list of radioactive elements includes berkelium, radon, polonium, californium, thorium, and others.

What is the Most Radioactive Element?

Polonium, which is classified as a metal and metalloid, is the most radioactive element that has no stable isotopes. It occurs naturally in very low concentrations. Lawrencium and nobelium are also highly radioactive elements.

Most dense? Least dense?

Osmium is the densest known chemical element with density of 22.61 g/cm3. Other elements with high density include platinum, rhenium, gold, thallium, berkelium, and americium. The least dense element is hydrogen while lithium is the least dense solid metal.

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