Periodic Table -> Lawrencium
Lawrencium DetailsLawrencium Symbol:
LrLawrencium Atomic Number:
103Lawrencium Atomic Weight:
(262)What is Lawrencium?
is a member of the actinide series in the periodic table. It has the symbol LR and is under number 103. Lawrencium is a radioactive synthetic chemical element, which is also known as a period 6 d-block element. It is similar to lutetium in composition and to the other elements of the actinide series.
Lawrencium does not appear freely in nature in its natural form. It was derived by a team of scientists from the University of California in 1961. The element was first produced by bombarding isotopes of californium
with nuclei of boron
. It was named lawrencium after the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, where it was first produced, and after Ernest Lawrence, being the inventor of the cyclotron. Another team of scientists at the University of California conducted a study in 1971 with the aim to establish the nuclear decay properties of the isotopes of this element.
The main isotope of lawrencium is lawrencium-262, the half-life of which is only 3.6 hours. This isotope decays into nobelium-256, either through spontaneous fission or through electron capture. The rest of its isotopes have a half-life of less than a minute, except for lawrencium-262, lawrencium-261, and lawrencium-260. One isomer and 11 isotopes of the element have been synthesized, and lawrencium-262 is the heaviest of them. Larencium-252 is the lightest isotope of the element synthesized so far. Other compounds of this element include lawrencium trichloride and lawrencium chloride. Lawrencium forms a trivalent ion just like the other actinide elements.
Lawrencium is the first member of the 6d-block in the periodic table. This element can appear in gas and in liquid form. A team at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in the then-Soviet Union used the nuclear reaction 243Am+18O to generate nuclei of lawrencium. When they brought this substance into contact with chlorine gas, a gaseous chloride product was formed. This substance was labeled 256LrCl3.
Most actinides are in the f-block series. Only lawrencium is in the d-block. Very little of it has ever been produced, and it thus has no known uses outside scientific research. Notably, lawrencium is highly radioactive. This means its atomic nucleus loses energy after generating ionizing particles. Usually, this happens because of a chemical interaction inside the nucleus. Sometimes, however, one of the inner electrons of the atom plays a role in the configuration.
The process of radioactive decay is random, meaning that one cannot make predictions about when it will happen. The probability of decay is consistent over time. The loss of energy occurs when the atom transforms into a different type of nucleus. In general, lawrencium has an unstable nucleus and is difficult to detect and produce.
The atomic weight of the element is 262. Its melting point is 1900 K (1627°C or 2961°F). Its density, ionization energy, and boiling point are not known. Its ionic radius and Vanderwaals radius are also unknown. The element is in a solid state at room temperature.
Given that it does not occur naturally, it is unstable, and is hasn’t been found in the earth’s crust, the element does not pose health hazards. The reason is that any amount of lawrencium formed decomposes to other elements quickly. Because of its short half-life, the element is not hazardous to the environment.
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